forces acting within the Sun cause loops of cooler plasma to extend
outwards into the Sun's corona ( outer atmosphere ). These loops
are called 'prominences'.
A coronal mass ejection (CME) is an ejection of material
from the solar corona. The ejected material is a plasma, the core
of which is composed of material from the 'prominence'. This material
consists primarily of electrons and protons, but also contains small
quantities of the heavier elements found in the Earth, such as oxygen,
When the ejection reaches the Earth as an ICME (Interplanetary
CME) and connects with the Earth's magnetosphere, it creates trillions
of watts of power which are directed back toward the Earth's upper
The mean distance of the Sun from the Earth is approximately
149.6 million kilometers (1 AU).