The Visible Earths
01- Nazca,Cocos,Caribbean
02- Pre-Cambrian
03- Shields of the Earth
04- Shield Re-assembly
05- Volcanic Activity
06- Hinge Faults
07- Himalayas
08- Juan De Fuca, Gorda
09- Ring of Fire
10- Oceans Closed
11- Earthquake Waves
12- Mirror Plates
13- Interior
14- Continent Reflections
15- Earthquake Paths
16- Object in the interior
17- Magnetic Mirror
18- Full Expansion
  Mars
19- Contraction
20- Shield Volcanoes
21- Valles Marineris
22- Entry Point of Mars
  The Gas Giants
23- The Gas Giants
  Asteroids
24- Asteroids
  Mercury
25- Mercury
  Venus
26- Venus' Crust
27- Gravity Anomalies
28- Free-Air Correction
29- Rudimentary America
30- Magma Oceans
31- Full Sequence & Notes

21 - Valles Marineris

Click here for enlarged diagram

 

As the Pacific spreading pushes the Central American plates forward to form the Tharsis shield volcanoes, the Himalayan mountain range is simultaneously pushed forward from the other side and, as it collapses into new volcanism, it comes to rest closer to the volcanoes. Its remnant volcanism pulls open Valles Marineris, the large tear that corresponds to the scar of the original impact.

NOTE: By this stage the oceans and most of the atmosphere are gone. This process is partly related to climate change. The effect of the water activity of Mars plays a large part in the reshaping of this topography. Both are covered in 'Global Warming'

 
Alan Lambert 2010